英语(一)英语(二)重点难点分析

作者:成都专升本学校  时间:2019-07-10  浏览:59

英语 ( 一 )( 二 ) 试卷结构

  单选 10 分 语法 \ 词汇

  完型填空 10 分 语法 \ 词汇 ,

  阅读 3 篇 30 分

  单词 20 个 10 分

  语法填空 10 分

  中译英 5 句 15 分

  英译中 一段 15 分

  英语 ( 一 )( 二 ) 在语法要求上没有太大的区别 . 英语 ( 二 ) 主要是词汇和阅读理解能力的加深

  英语 ( 一 ) 试卷结构 2003 年 4 月份

  单选完型 语法 12 分 词汇 8 分

  语法填空 语法 10 分

  翻译 语法 约 20 分 词汇 约 10 分

-------------------------------------------------------

  语法 42 分 词汇 18 分

  阅读 30 分 有一些题相对简单

  单词 10 分

  考试重点语法

  虚拟语态、倒装句、主谓一致、介词、连词

  时态、语态、情态动词、非谓语动词 ( 不定式、动名词、分词 )

  并列句、复合句 ( 主从 , 宾从 , 表从 , 定从 , 状从 , 同位从 )

  1.简单句和并列句

  主谓 , 主谓状 I study hard.

  情态动词 + 实意动词构成谓语 . I shall go.

  主谓宾 , 主谓介宾 I study English.

  I look at the blackboard.

  主系表 I am a student. The leaves turn red.

  主谓双宾 I give him a present.

  主谓宾宾补 I let you do it.

  I ask you to do it.

  定 状 语 A red book.

  Work hard.

  并 列 句 I worked and studied(x)

  I worked and he studied.

  2. 主从复合句

  (1) 宾语从句

  I study English. I think (that)… I think that she is a good student.

  I made it clear that he objected to the plan.

  I asked whether/if he was a good student.

  I don't know whether it is raining.

  I asked what he had studied. He gave me what I need.

  You are wrong in that you took effect for cause.

(2) 主语从句

  That the sun moves around the earth is the truth.( it is the truth that……)

  Whether it is raining is not known.

  It is not known——computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.

  A.whether B. if C. that D. how

  It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditional society.

  Who will come to the meeting remains unknown.

  翻译题 : In a sense, what he said amounts to threat.

  (3) 表语从句

  Your greatest fault is that you are careless.

  The problem is what we should do to help him.

  (4) 形容词补语从句

  We feel proud that our team has won every match this year.

  He wasn't sure whether he should stay or leave.

  Are you certain who he is

  (5) 同位语从句

  (fact, news, idea, opinion, concern, hope, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, report,

  order, question, problem, belief, truth, answer, statement, promise, possibility.)

  The news that he intended to come gave us much pleasure.

  (6) 状语从句

  时间状语从句

  When I studied, the bell rang.

  She was going upstairs when suddenly the light went out.

  He had no sooner died than / he had hardly died when the family arguments began.

  地点状语从句

  He live where he liked.

  原因状语从句

  He was late because he missed the bus.

  Now that you mention it, I do remember.

  I'm in a slightly awkward position, in that my secretary is on holiday at that moment.

  目的状语从句

  We have so arranged matters that one of us is always on duty.

  Bring it closer so that I may see it better.

  结果状语从句

  He brought a big house so( that) he had more space to paint in.

  He made such a good speech that he won warm applause.

  翻译题 :The brothers looks so alike that it is difficult to tell them each other

  条件状语从句

  If I make a promise, I keep it.

  I'll lend you the money , as/so long as you take my advice.

  These messages will become rubbish unless some measures have been taken.

让步状语从句

  Although/ though he was Spanish, he spent most of his life in Germany.

  Whatever/ No matter what happens, you must be calm and quiet.

  However/no matter how loudly you shout, you won't be heard.

  方式状语从句

  I have changed the plan as you suggested.

  As if ( as though)

  比较状语从句 ( 重点 )

  She is as tall as Tom( is) I arrived as early as you (did)

  Mary was older/more careful than Tom( was)

  Mary works harder /more carefully than Tom( does)

  Bill speaks French ——( badly) than he writes it.

  The –( far)away we get from the earth, the thinner the air becomes. further 进

  (8) 定语从句 在从句中成份 + 连词

  She is a beautiful girl. I like the girl who is beautiful.( who 主语 )

  This is the film that I see.

  This is the boy who (whom)(——) you met yesterday. ( 主语 )

  Tell me something about the man for whom I shall be working / (whom) I shall be working for.

  I read the book whose cover is red.

  You are still the same person as I knew ten years ago.

  I never heard such stories as he told.

  This is the day when ( on which ) I joined the league.

  This is the house where( in which ) I live./ This is the house I live in.

  非限定性定语从句 :

  He met Mary, who invited him to dinner.

  I gave the book to Tom, whom/ who I found after the meeting.

  Her doctor, whose office was newly decorated, started to charge higher fee.

  His latest play, which was well reviewed by the critics, has been a great success.

  I called him by the wrong name, for which mistake I apologized.

  Prof. Emery, about whom everyone is taking these days.

  There are only four areas ____ very many diamonds have been found. 华夏大地教育网博客F4`8k)hC4M&M p A.where B.when C.that D.which

  Where 用在定语从句和状语从句的区别

  I'll go to the place ( where I live)

  I'll go wherever work conditions are difficult.

  定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  The news (that our team had won)was known to all.

  This is the film that (I see)。

  考题 : Such people – you describe are rare nowadays.

  a. as b. that c. who d.which

  Anyone ——( want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about IT . [who want]

  Who wants Many of us visited the industrial exhibition,——,to our disappointment, we saw very few high-tech products.

  a. where b. which c. as d. that

  3. 并列复合句

  He said that he would give up smoking, but nobody believe it.

  I never saw a busier person than she seemed to be; yet it was difficult to say what he she did.

动词的时态和语态

  一般  进行  完成  完成进行 
过去  I did  I was doing  I had done  I had been doing 
现在  I do   I am doing  I have done   I have been doing  
将来  I shall do  I shall be doing  I shall have done  I shall have been doing(/) 
过去将来  I should do   I should be doing(/)  I should ha ve done(/)  I should have been doing(/) 

  重点语法——动词的时态和语态

  时态的呼应

  I thought the experiment was going on now.

  She said this apparatus would be available next week.

  Am/is/are/+ done. This room is cleaned every day.

  Was/were +done This room was cleaned yesterday.

  Will be+ done This room will be cleaned.

  Am/is/are being done This room is being cleaned at the moment.

  Was/were being done This room was being cleaned when I arrived.

  Have/has been done My car has been repaired.

  Had been done The room looks much better. It had been cleaned.

  No sooner had I arrived at the theatre than the film began .

  Hardly……… when

  Some people think that the relations between people have deteriorated -( deteriorate) so much that understanding and friendship are almost impossible.

  Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what had happened (happen) to her.

  非谓语动词

  动词不定式

  做主语 To see is to believe.

  What to do next has not been decide

  It is not easy to remember all these words.

  表语 To know everything is to know nothing.

  定语 This is a book to be written .

  宾语 I want to study .

  He found it impossible to keep silent any longer.

  宾补 They warned me not to be late.

  I let you do it

  (make, have, see, watch, notice, look at, observe, smell, listen to, hear,perceive)

  状语 Yesterday he came to see me.

  独立成份 To be frank , she is not my girlfriend.

  形容词补语 I am glad to hear the news.

  不定式的逻辑主语 For a bridge to collapse like that is unbelievable.

  不定式的 时态和语态 to do(be) , to be+p.p.

  to have done, to have been done

  动名词

  主 , 表语 Seeing is believing

  Tom's going there won't do any harm.

  My hobby is collecting stamps.

定语 This is a swimming poor. ( a poor for swimming)

  This is a hiding place ( a place for hiding )

  宾语 I enjoy studying (mind, keep, appreciate, can't help, consider, postpone,suggest,admit etc.)

  Do you mind my smoking here

  介词 + 宾语

  I used to doing. (confess to, look forward to, object to doing sth.)

  be involve in, consist of, be fond of, etc.

  动名词的时态和语态基本形同分词的时态和语态

  分词

  状语 When I saw the film, I felt sad = Seeing the film, I felt sad.

  Because it is Sunday today, we have no school.

  It being Sunday, we have no school.

  When the job was finished, we went home straight away.

  The job finished, we went home straight away.

  定语 The boy standing there is a classmate of mine.

  =The boy who is standing there is a classmate of mine.

  The used car. A broken cup the question involved.

  表语 The film is exciting. All the windows are broken.

  宾补 I found them watering flowers.( I found that they were watering flowers.

  I found the flowers watered. ( I found the flowers watered)

  分词的时态和语态 .( 形同动名词 )

  doing (being) being done

  having done having been done

  ______nothing to say, the boy shield way form the crowd.

  A. Having B. Have C Had. D. Having being

  What developed was a music readily taking ( take) on various forms.

  Not having got (not get) enough hands, she had great difficulty in accomplishing the task.

  非谓语动词答题要点

  1. Anyone wanting (want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.

  2 . A Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted (convict)of murder.

  3. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used ( use) in experiments may decrease.

  Not have got (not, get)enough hands she had great difficulty in accomplishing the task .

  It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control ( control) his direction.

  As I'll be away for a year , I'd appreciate hearing (hear)from you now and then .

  Object to , confess to , look forward to + doing.

  介词 + doing.

  If I had remembered —— the window, the thief would not have got in.

  a. to close b. closing c. to have close d. having closed.

  Begin, start, intend, continue to do, doing 的区别不大

  The baby began crying. The baby began to cry.

Try to do. 努力去做 Try doing 尝试去做 .

  I was very tired. I tired to keep my eyes open, but I couldn't.

  I can't find anywhere to live.

  ______, they began to get down to business. A. The holidays being over B. The holidays are over C. The holidays were over D. The holidays had been over

  V+ing 及从句 的固定用法

  It's no use doing sth.

  It's no use worrying about it. There's nothing you can do.

  It's (not) worth doing sth.

  Have difficulty doing sth.

  Spend time (in) doing sth.

  There is no doubt that.

  强调句

  强调主语 It is I that/who am to blame

  2. 强调直接宾语 It was a glass that Mary broke.

  3. 强调间接宾语 It was him that I gave the pen to.

  4. 强调介词宾语 It is this room that I am living in.

  5. 强调状语 1) 时间状语 It was last year that Tom graduated from high school.

  2) 地点状语 It was under the bridge that we found him.

  3) 原因状语 It was for his arrogance that I dislike him.

  4) 目的状语 It was for pleasure that I read it.

  不仅可以是陈述句 , 还可以是疑问句和感叹句 .

  Was it you that/who lost a watch yesterday What great progress it was that you made.

  强调句可以是一个从句 , 被强调的部分也可以是从句 .

  I was told that it was because he hadn't received the invitation that he didn't come

  It was there, the police believe,——she was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag.

  A. that B.until C. which D. when

  虚拟语气

  第一类型 :

  见词就填 :

  A. (should ) do

  (should) be

  B. (should) be + 过去分词

  第一类型虚拟语气 A

  动词  名词  形容词 
建议  advise  advice  advisable 
  propose  proposal   
  suggest  Suggestion  suggested 
坚持  insist  insistence  insistent 
要求  require  Requirement   
  desire  desire  desired 
  demand  Demand   
  request  request  Requested 
建议  recommend  Recommendation   
命令  order  order  Ordered 
决定  decide  decision  Decided 
命令  command  command   
宁愿  prefer  preference  Preferable 
决定  determine  determination   
命令  Instruct  Instruction   
安排  arrange  Arrangement  Arranged 
重要    Importance  important 


第一类型虚拟语气 B

  见某些形容词要虚拟

  Urgent, necessary, important, possible, essential, incredible, natural, ridiculous, vital, imperative, crucial, critical, proper, compulsory, etc.

  形容词带的从句 : It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules.

  主语从句 : It is decided that the meeting (should) be postponed.

  宾语从句 : He insisted that his daughter (should) come.

  表语从句 : The doctor's advice is that the patient (should) be kept quiet.

  同位语从句 : He gave order that the guests (should) be hospitably entertained.

  考题 : They demanded that the right to vote——(give) to every adult person. [(should) be given]

  For a child to give up less mature idea for a more sophisticate one, it requires that the child ____ psychologically ready for the new idea. 华夏大地教育网博客j/JE~r6q X

  A.is B.be C.were D.would be

  第二类型 : if 的非真实条件句 ( 可能性小或没有可能 )

  注意 : if 可以引导真实条件句 , 多是条件状语从句 .

  第二类型虚拟语气 ( 时态到推的概念 )

  If + 从句  主句 
与现在事实相反  If+ 主语 .+ were华夏大地教育网博客.aJ.G`6f0|]
      + V.ed 
主语 + should + V.华夏大地教育网博客f,t"_8wY7e
  +would + V.华夏大地教育网博客 DFZ;R9~+Hk@
  +could + V.
#xV,Fkl9{)x0 
与过去事实相反  If+ 主语 .+ had+ done
K)A6O9u/xZ0   + been 
主语 + should + have+ p.p.
qCH%k*\e B0 +would + have+p.p.华夏大地教育网博客/bh \B`M
  +could + have+ p.p.华夏大地教育网博客g5X3Po F:I8|#C &H
  + might+ have+ p.p.  
与将来事实相反  If+ 主语 .
U}(F DlDE^0         + were to do/be华夏大地教育网博客]s,kF3QN0k
         +should do/be  
主语 + should + V.
N K2tw~V4AvO0 +would + V.
|-kPS%f0 +could + V.
1fpmV K9c1?0 +might+ V.  

  第二类型虚拟语气举例省略 if 的倒装

  5~/F!V dE%t k }.n0were, had , should.

  If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.

  Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved.

  考题 :

  _____for your help, I would not have overcome the psychological pressures and tensions.

  A. Had it not been B. not been C. Without being D. not having been

  特殊虚拟

  Even if 形式上与 if 相同

  Wish 形式上大体与 if 从句相同

  从句谓语与 Wish 同时 Wish+ 主语 +V.ed/were

  I wish I were as young as you.

  从句谓语发生 Wish 之前 多用 Wish+ 主语 +had done(been)

  I wish that he had not made so much trouble.

从句谓语发生 Wish 之后 用 Wish+ 主语 +would(could) + v.

  I wish you would stay with me far a while

  I wish I could fly.

  It is (about. High……) time that + 从句 (V.ed)

  It is high time that we began to work.

  In case, lest, for fear that (should)+ V.

  The mad man was out in the padded cell lest he ——himself.

  A. injure B. had injured c. injured d. would injure.

  Would rather =had rather, would just as soon, would sooner, would prefer 多加过去式表示尚未发生的动作 .

  倒装句

  全部倒装 In came Jack. Now comes your turn.

  Among them were two girls.

  部分倒装

  Hardly/scarcely/barely had we got on the bus when it began to rain.

  No sooner had he put down the receiver than the telephone rang again.

  Not until many years later did the whole truth become known.

  Not only did he win the championship in the race, but he also broke the world record.

  Neither my sister nor I have traveled by air.

  Never, nowhere, no longer, little, feww, not…( not a single word) no. (at no time, by no means, in no way, on no account, under/in no circumstances)

  Only here can you buy fresh eggs.

  主谓一致要点

  To become actresses is their ambition.

  Nodding often means you say“ yes.”

  What I did was to give her a book.

  Neither she nor I am wet.

  Many a student doesn't like having to do their homework.

  连词

  连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, which ever

  连接副词 when, how, why, where, whenever, wherever

  并列连词 and, but, or, so , therefore, yet, however, nevertheless, for, hence, as well as, both……and, not only……but also, either……or, neither……nor,

  从属连词 after, when, before, as, while, since, until, till, although, though, if , even if, unless, lest, because, than, that, whether, so that, as soon as, as long as, in order that, as if, as though, in case, now that, so……that, such……that, as .as.

  When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, —— we should not play it.

  A. otherwise B. instead C. nevertheless D. either

  不定代词

  Any,one, none, nothing, neither, either, both, all, anyone, any one, some, any, much, many

  Are you sure there are not—— sharks here A.any B. some C. many D. much.

  Used to , be used to doing

Frank lives alone,。 He doesn't mind this because has lived alone for 15years. So he is used to it. He is used to living alone.

  These days I usually stay in bed until late. But when I had a job, I used to get up early.

  词汇题常考动词搭配

  Come, carry, take, go,get,cut, make, put ,turn, bring.

  完型填空题型分析

  考察重点主谓一致 , 动词时态和语态 , 名词的数 , 代词 , 形容词副词的比较级 , 介词和连词。常用词语搭配。70% 考连词 ,代词,介词以及承上启下的其他词和词组。

  方法 : 先跳空通读全文 , 然后根据语法结构 , 语义连贯 , 词与词的搭配填空 , 最后在通读全文。

  注意顾全大局

  选的是最佳答案

  词型填空题大部分为动词

  阅读理解题型分析

  考察

  (1) 词和短语的意义

  (2) 句子表达的各个内容之间的关系

  (3) 文章的主题思想和大意

  (4) 文章或某句的内在含义及推理

  (5) 文章作者的态度 .

  答题方法 :

  先看题 — 阅读的难点不是考试的重点

  不要死扣一句

  第一段和最后一段 , 段首和段尾句

  多数题目可以在文章中找到相应的段落 , 句子或短语 .

  翻译题

  评分原则为:

  (1) 主要语法错误(如动词时态、语态、虚拟语气、主谓一致、否定、疑问以及其他句型错误)或影响基本句意的重要用词错误扣 1 分。

  非基本语法错误(如介词、代词、冠词、大写、标点等错误)以及不影响基本句意的用词错误两处扣 1 分。

  拼写错误每错两处扣 1 分。拼写错误本大题总扣分不超过 3 分。

  短文英译汉主要是读懂原文 , 注意一些修饰关系的翻译 , 如定语从句 .

  短文英译汉的评分标准按译文质量分为 15-13 分、 12-10 分、 9-7 分、 6-4 分和 3-1 分五个档次。

  各档次标准如下:

  ( 1 ) 15-13 分。全文翻译正确或基本正确,汉语表达通顺。

  ( 2 ) 12-10 分。全文主要内容翻译正确或基本正确,汉语表达通顺,但有少数语句翻译错误。

  ( 3 ) 9-7 分。全文不少于一半的内容翻译基本正确,汉语表达通顺,有一些语句翻译错误。

  ( 4 ) 6-4 分。少部分内容翻译基本正确,有较多的语句翻译错误。

  ( 5 ) 3-1 分。仅译对个别句子。

  ( 6 )全文译错或只译出零星单词或全文未译,不给分。

  ( 7 )缺译的语句按完全译错处理。 根据以上评分档次描述,评分可在相应的档次上下浮动。

  考试注意事项

  重视语法,考试前用时间把书上的语法串起来复习,做书上的一些翻译练习。

  练习阅读 . 找自己的常犯错误

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